Forthcoming. Varieties of Nationalism: Communities, Narratives Identities (with Maya Tudor), Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. Part of the Elements Series on the Politics of Development co-edited by Rachel Beatty Riedl and Ben Ross Schneider.

Nationalism has long been a normatively and empirically contested concept, associated with democratic revolutions and public goods provision, but also with xenophobia, genocide, and wars. Moving beyond facile distinctions between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ nationalisms, we argue that nationalism is an empirically variegated ideology. Much like the proverbial blind men who each hold a different part of an elephant, nationalism scholars have a similar experience. Definitional disagreements, Eurocentric conceptualizations, and linear associations between ethnicity and nationalism have hampered our ability to synthesize insights.  In this book, we propose that nationalism can be broken down productively into parts based on three key questions: 1. Does a nation exist? 2. How do national narratives vary? 3. When do national narratives matter? The answers to these questions generate five dimensions along which nationalism varies: elite fragmentation and popular fragmentation of national communities; ascriptiveness and thickness of national narratives; and salience of national identities.

Book Cover

The Politics of Nation-Building: Making Co-Nationals, Refugees, and Minorities (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

Under what conditions are state elites likely to target a non-core group with assimilation, grant it minority rights, or remove it from the state? Many scholars who have addressed this question have focused on domestic explanations for state behavior, while ignoring international factors. In The Politics of Nation-Building, I argue that a state’s nation-building policies toward non-core groups are driven by its foreign policy goals and its interstate relations with the external patrons of these non-core groups. I show that the way a state treats a non-core group within its own borders is determined largely by whether the state’s foreign policy is revisionist or cleaves to the international status quo, and whether it is allied or in rivalry with that group’s external patrons. If the non-core group is perceived as mobilized by a rival state, the government is more likely to adopt policies of assimilation (if it is status quo) or exclusion (if it is revisionist), while groups backed by allied states are more likely to be accommodated. Non-core groups without external links are more likely to be targeted with assimilationist policies. The argument presented in the book bridges comparative politics and international relations’ literatures pertaining to the process of national integration.

-Winner of the 2014 European Studies Book Award, Council for European Studies
-Winner of the 2013 Peter Katzenstein Book Prize, Cornell University
-Honourable Mention, 2014 Joseph Rothschild Prize in Nationalism and Ethnic Studies, Association for the Study of Nationalities

Book Symposium in Nationalities Papers, with review essays by Kristin Fabbe; Matthew Adam Kocher; Yonca Köksal and my response.

Reviews: Public Administration, Perspectives on Politics, Nations and Nationalism, International Studies Review, Nationalities Papers, Südosteuropa, Europe-Asia Studies, Canadian Journal of Political Science, Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Journal of Peace Research, e-International Relations, Modern Greek Studies Yearbook, Choice.


Greek edition: Οικοδομώντας το Έθνος (Epikentro, 2016).

Reviews: The Books Journal, To PontikiForeign Affairs Hellenic Edition, The National Herald, Oikonomiki Epitheorisi.





Edited Volumes

IMG_5446Enemies Within: The Global Politics of Fifth Columns, Oxford University Press. (w/ Scott Radnitz)

The invocation of fifth columns in the political arena—whether contrived or based on real fears—has historically recurred periodically and is experiencing an upsurge in our era of democratic erosion and geopolitical uncertainty. Fifth columns accusations can have baleful effects on governance and trust, as they call into question the loyalty and belonging of the targeted populations. They can cause human rights abuses, political repression, and even ethnic cleansing. Enemies Within is the first book to systematically investigate the roots and implications of the politics of fifth columns. In this volume, a multidisciplinary group of leading scholars address several related questions: When are actors likely to employ fifth-column claims and against whom? What accounts for changes in fifth-column framing over time?  How do the claims and rhetoric of governments differ from those of societal groups? How do accusations against ethnically or ideologically defined groups differ? Finally, how do actors labeled as fifth columns respond? To answer these questions, the contributors apply a common theoretical framework and work within the tradition of qualitative social science to analyze cases from three continents, oftentimes challenging conventional wisdom. Enemies Within offers a unique perspective to better understand contemporary challenges including the rise of populism and authoritarianism, the return of chauvinistic nationalism, the weakening of democratic norms, and the persecution of ethnic or religious minorities and political dissidents.

With contributions by Samer Anabtawi, Efe Murat Balıkçıoğlu, András Bozóki, H. Zeynep Bulutgil, Volha Charnysh, Kathryn Ciancia, Robert Crews, Sam Erkiletian, Kristin E. Fabbe, Lillian Frost, Erin Jenne, Kendrick Kuo, and Péter Visnovitz.

Reviews: Nationalities Papers, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics

9781032042787The Microfoundations of Diaspora Politics, Routledge. (w/ Alexandra Délano Alonso).

The Microfoundations of Diaspora Politics examines the various actors within and beyond the state that participate in the design and implementation of diaspora policies, as well as the mechanisms through which diasporas are constructed by governments, political parties, diaspora entrepreneurs, or international organisations.

With contributions by Alan Gamlen, Michael E. Cummings and Paul M. Vaaler; Jean-Thomas Arrighi and Jean-Michel Lafleur; Michael Ahn Paarlberg; Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff; Enze Han; Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels; Harris Mylonas and Marko Žilović; Olga Zeveleva; Yehonatan Abramson; Rilke Mahieu.

This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

Edited Journal Issues

Screen Shot 2022-02-02 at 09.15.27Harris Mylonas and Ned Whalley (eds.). 2022. Pandemic Nationalism. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 50, Issue 1.

What does the pandemic reveal about perennial moral dilemmas between individual and societal interest, as well as the national and the global interest? In our introductory essay for the special issue on Pandemic Nationalism Ned Whalley and I suggest that while nationalism has unquestionably helped overcome collective action problems within state borders, it has undermined them at the global scale. The most clear example has been the abject failure of international organizations to coordinate an appropriate response.

This special issue includes contributions by Florian Bieber; Erin Jenne;  Siniša Malešević; Paul Goode, David Stroup, and Lisa Gaufman; Jakub Wondreys and Cas Mudde; Prerna Singh; Jonathan Parker; Hynek Böhm; Harris Mylonas and Ned Whalley.

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies: Vol 45, No 4Alexandra Délano Alonso and Harris Mylonas (eds.). 2019. The Microfoundations of Diaspora Politics: Unpacking the State and Disaggregating the Diaspora. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 45, Issue 4.

This special issue includes contributions by Alan Gamlen, Michael E. Cummings and Paul M. Vaaler; Jean-Thomas Arrighi and Jean-Michel Lafleur; Michael Ahn Paarlberg; Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff; Enze Han; Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels; Harris Mylonas and Marko Žilović; Olga Zeveleva; Yehonatan Abramson; Rilke Mahieu.

Journal Articles

2022. “Pandemic Nationalism.” Nationalities Papers, Vol. 50, Issue 1: 3-12 (w/ Ned Whalley).

2022. “Nation-Building and the Role of Identity in Civil Wars,” Ethnopolitics. Vol. 21, Issue 1: 1-21 (w/ Kendrick Kuo).

2021. “Nationalism: What we know and what we still need to know,” Annual Review of Political Science, Volume 24: 109-132 (w/ Maya Tudor).

2021. “Exchange on the quantitative measurement of ethnic and national identity,” Nations and Nationalism, Volume 27, Issue 1: 22-40 (w/ Daniel Bochsler, Elliott Green, Erin Jenne, and Andreas Wimmer).

2021. “State of Nationalism (SoN): Nation-Building.” Studies on National Movements, Volume 8: 1-17.

2019. “Nation-Building Policies in the Balkans: An Ottoman or a Manufactured Legacy?Nations and Nationalism, Volume 25, Issue 3: 866-887.

2019. “The Microfoundations of Diaspora Politics: Unpacking the State and Disaggregating the Diaspora,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Volume 45, Issue 4: 473-491 (w/ Alexandra Délano Alonso).

2019. “Foreign Policy Priorities and Ethnic Return Migration Policies: Group-Level Variation in Greece and Serbia,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Volume 45, Issue 4: 613-635 (w/ Marko Žilović).

2017. “Methodological Challenges in the Study of Stateless Nationalist Territorial Claims,” Territory, Politics, Governance, Volume 5, Issue 2: 145- 157 (w/ Nadav Shelef).

2016. “Threats to Territorial Integrity, National Mass Schooling, and Linguistic Commonality,” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 49, No. 11: 1446-1479 (w/ Keith Darden).

2015. Methodological Problems in the Study of Nation-Building: Behaviorism and Historicist Solutions in Political Science,” Social Science Quarterly, Volume 96, Issue 3: 740–758.

2014. “Which Land is Our Land? Domestic Politics and Change in the Territorial Claims of Stateless Nationalist Movements,” Security Studies, Vol. 23, Issue 4, 754-786 (w/ Nadav Shelef).

2014. “Democratic Politics in Times of Austerity: The Limits of Forced Reform in Greece,” Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 12, No. 2 (June): 435-443.

2014. “Interstate Relations, Perceptions, And Power Balance: Explaining China’s Policies Toward Ethnic Groups, 1949-1965,” Security Studies, Vol. 23, Issue 1, 148-181 (w/ Enze Han).

2012. “The Promethean Dilemma: Third-Party State-building in Occupied Territories,”Ethnopolitics, Issue 1, March, pp. 85-93 (w/ Keith Darden).

2012. “The Promethean Dilemma Revisited: A Response to Bardos, Christia, Gortzak &Siroky and Jenne,” Ethnopolitics, Issue 1, March, pp. 109-112 (w/ Keith Darden).

2008. “When do Votes Count? Regime Type, Electoral Conduct, and Political Competition in Africa,” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 41, No. 11, 1466-1491 (w/ Nasos Roussias).

Stata file  and Codebook

Book Chapters

2023. “Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Study of International Relations.” In Thies, Cameron G. (ed.) Handbook of International Relations. Northhampton: Edward Elgar Publishers (w/ Erin Jenne).

2022. “The Geopolitics of ‘Fifth Column’ Framing in Xinjiang,” in Harris Mylonas and Scott Radnitz (eds). Enemies Within: The Global Politics of Fifth Columns. New York: Oxford University Press (w/ Kendrick Kuo).

2022. “Introduction: Theorizing Fifth-Column Politics,” in Harris Mylonas and Scott Radnitz (eds). Enemies Within: The Global Politics of Fifth Columns. New York: Oxford University Press (w/ Scott Radnitz).

2022. “Conclusion: The Politics of Fifth Columns Revisited,” in Harris Mylonas and Scott Radnitz (eds). Enemies Within: The Global Politics of Fifth Columns. New York: Oxford University Press (w/ Scott Radnitz).

2020. “Nation-building.” Oxford Bibliographies in International Relations. Ed. Patrick James. New York: Oxford University Press. 

2020. “The Enduring Promise of the EU,” in Jones, Erik (ed.) European Studies: Past, Present, Future, Agenda Publishing, pp. 193-96.

2019. “Hierarchy, Sovereignty, and Adaptation in the Eastern Mediterranean,” in Litsas, Spyridon and Tziampiris, Aristotle (eds.) The New Eastern Mediterranean: Theory, Politics and States in a Volatile Era, Springer, pp. 31-43 (with Ariel Ahram, Virginia Tech University).

2018. “The Political Consequences of the Crisis in Greece: Charismatic Leadership and its Discontents,” in Evdoxios Doxiadis and Aimee Placas (eds.). Living Under Austerity: Greek Society in Crisis. New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books, pp. 46-66.

2018. “Nationalism and Foreign Policy,” in Cameron G. Thies (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis, Volume II. Oxford University Press, pp. 223-242 (with Kendrick Kuo).

2013. “Ethnic Return Migration, Selective Incentives, and the Right to Freedom of Movement in Post-Cold War Greece,” in Willem Maas (ed.). Democratic Citizenship and the Free Movement of People. Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 175-193.

2011. “Is Greece a Failing Developed State?” in Botsiou, Konstantina E.; Klapsis, Antonis (eds.) The Konstantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook 2011: The Global Economic Crisis and the Case of Greece. Springer, pp. 77-88.

2010. “Assimilation and its Alternatives: Caveats in the Study of Nation-Building Policies,” In  Rethinking Violence: States and Non-State Actors in Conflict, eds. Adria Lawrence and Erica Chenoweth. BCSIA Studies in International Security, MIT Press, pp. 83-116.

2010. “Hellenes are…Incorporation Strategies toward Co-Ethnic Repatriate Groups in Contemporary Greece (1990-2006)”  (with Elpida Vogli). In Immigrants and Minorities: Discourse and Policies, eds. Μiltos Pavlou & Αthena Skoulariki, Athens: Vivliorama/KEMO (Research Center for Minority Groups) [In Greek], pp. 353-396.

European Journal of Political Research

epdy.v60.1.cover2022. “Greece: Political developments and data for 2021. First Signs of Government Fatigue,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 61, Issue 1: 193-205.

2021. “Greece: Political developments and data for 2020,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 60, Issue 1: 159-166.

2020. “Greece: Political developments and data for 2019,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 59, Issue 1: 161-174.

2019. “Greece: Political developments and data for 2018,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 58, Issue 1: 113-122.

2018. “Greece: Political developments and data for 2017,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 57, Issue 1: 121-128.

2017. “Greece,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 56, Issue 1: 115-122.

2016. “Greece,” European Journal of Political Research, Political Data Yearbook, Vol. 55, Issue 1: 113–123.

2015. “Greece,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 54, Issue 1: 125-132.

2014. “Greece,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 53, Issue 1: 140-147.

2013. “Greece,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 52, Issue 1: 87–95.

2012. “Greece,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 51, Issue 1: 122-128 (with George Th. Mavrogordatos).

2011. “Greece,” European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook, Volume 50, Issue 7-8: 985-990 (with George Th. Mavrogordatos).

Virtual Issues from Nationalities Papers

2022. Introduction to the Virtual Issue Kazakhstan articles from Nationalities Papers (with Caress Schenk)

2020. Introduction to the Virtual Issue on Belarus from Nationalities Papers (Gulnaz Sharafutdinova)

Policy Memos

2019. “The Geopolitics of De Facto States,” PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo 577.

2015. “De Facto States Unbound,” PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo 374 (with Ariel Ahram).

2013. “The Challenges of Nation-Building in the Syrian Arab Republic,” in The Political Science of Syria’s War, POMEPS Briefing #22 (December 18), pp. 57-59.

2013. “The Politics of Diaspora Management in the Republic of Korea,” The Asan Institute for Policy Studies, Issue Brief No. 81, pp. 1-12.

2013. “Whither Nation-Building?e-International Relations.

2012. “The Future of Euro-Atlantic Integration in the Western Balkans,” in Alexander Schmemann and Cory Welt (eds.). Bridging Divides in Eastern Europe. Washington, DC: PONARS Eurasia.

2010. “New Trends in the Data on Religion and Democracy” in Report of the Georgetown Symposium on Religion, Democracy, and the Foreign Policy of the Obama Administration (November 3, 2009). Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs and the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, pp. 11-17.

Invited Publications

2023. “Why, When, and How did Nationalism Become Grounded?,” Nationalities Papers, Vol. 51, Issue 1: 223–228.

2022. “The Determinants of Successful Nation-building: Macrosociological Political Modernization and Political Alliance Structures,” Nationalities Papers, Vol. 50, Issue 1: 185-189.

2020. “APSA Presidential Task Force Report on New Partnerships,” PS: Political Science & Politics. Cambridge University Press, 53(4), pp. 847–849 (w/ Smith, R., Rasmussen, A. C., Galston, W., Han, H., King-Meadows, T., Kirkpatrick, J., Levine, P., Lieberman, R., Rigger, S., Sinclair-Chapman, V., Shay, C., Van Vechten, R. and Grigg, A.)

2019. “Human Agency, System Polarity, Regional Integration, and Nested Security,” Nationalities Papers, 47(4): 690-692.

2016.The Politics of Nation-Building Revisited: A Response to Fabbe, Kocher, and Köksal,” Nationalities Papers, Volume 44, Issue 3: 496-502.

2016. “Never Alone/Find the Way” in James Faubion, Eugenia Georges and Gonda Van Steen (eds.). Greece is Burning. Hot Spots, Cultural Anthropology website (April 21).

2015. “From ‘Divide and Rule’ to Nation-Building,” Newsletter of the European Politics & Society Section of the American Political Science Association, (Summer): 17-19.

2013. “Revisiting the Link: Politicizing Religion in Democratizing Countries,” Harvard International Review, Vol. 34, Issue 4 (Spring), pp. 48-52.

2003. “The Comparative Method & the Study of Civil Wars,” Science and Society, Issue 11: 1-35.[In Greek].

Book Reviews

2022. Review of Alexandra Délano Alonso’s From Here and There: Diaspora Policies, Integration, and Social Rights Beyond Borders. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. In Migration Studies, Volume 10, Issue 2: 293–296.

2020. Review Symposium on Alan Gamlen’s Human Geopolitics: States, Emigrants, and the Rise of Diaspora Institutions, Oxford University Press, 2019. In EUI’s Global Citizenship Observatory series.

2018. Review of Zeynep Bulutgil’s The Roots of Ethnic Cleansing in Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2016. In Nationalities Papers, Volume 46, Issue 5: 916-919.

2016. Review of Paschalis M. Kitromilides. 2013. Enlightenment and Revolution: The Making of Modern Greece. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. In Nations and Nationalism, Volume 22, Issue 3: pages 598–600.

2015. Review of Kostis Kornetis. Children of the Dictatorship: Student Resistance, Cultural Politics and the “Long 1960s” in Greece. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books. 2013. In TheAmerican Historical Review, 120 (4): 1563-1565.

2015. Review of Onur Yıldırım. 2012. Diplomacy and Displacement: Reconsidering the Turco-Greek Exchange of Populations, 1922-1934. New York and London: Routledge. In Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3: 268-270.

2015. Review of Adria Lawrence. 2013. Imperial Rule and the Politics of Nationalism: Anti-Colonial Protest in the French Empire. New York: Cambridge University Press. In H-Diplo and the International Security Studies Forum Roundtable, Volume VII, No. 18.

2015. Review of Dan Lainer-Vos. 2013. Sinews of the Nation: Constructing Irish and Zionist bonds in the United States. Cambridge: Polity Press. In Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Vol. 21, Issue 2: 264-266.

2012. Review of Carole McGranahan. 2010.  Arrested Histories: Tibet, the CIA, and Memories of a Forgotten War. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. In Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Spring): 154-156.

2010. Review of Bruce Clark. 2006. Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. In Nationalities Papers,  Vol. 38, No. 4: 578-580.

2009. Review of Alexandros Yannis. 2009. From “I” to “We”. Foreign Policy in the Era of the European Union and Globalization. Athens: Papazisis. In The Greek Political Science Review, No. 34: 154-156. [In Greek]

2009. Review of Vogli, Elpida. 2007. “Greek by descent”: Identity and Citizenship in Modern Greece, 1821-1844. Heraklion: Crete University Press. In The Greek Political Science Review, No. 33: 146-149. [In Greek]

2001. Review of Politis, Alexis. 1998 (2nd). Romantic Years. Ideologies and attitudes in Greece of 1830-1880. Athens: Mnimon. In Filelefthere Emphase [Liberal Emphasis], No. 7: 151-53. [In Greek]


2002. Aliens & Refugees. National Integration and Parliamentary Elections in Salonica: 1910-1923. National Center for Social Research (EKKE), Greek Social Data Bank. [in Greek]

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